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NATIVE PLANT LIST for Delaware, Southern New Jersey,
and Long Island, New York

 
 
   
This is a "starter" list of native plants for Delaware, Southern New Jersey, and Long Island, New York. It is intended for residential or commercial landscapers who want to create attractive and varied native landscapes.


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  TREES     SHRUBS     GROUND COVERS and VINES    FLOWERING PERENNIALS    FERNS  
  Trees            
  Common Name Scientific Name Sun Moist. Ht.
    Comments
 
 

Box Elder
Red Maple
Silver Maple
Downy Serviceberry
Sweet Birch
River Birch
American Hornbeam
Bitternut Hickory
Pignut Hickory
Shagbark Hickory
Hackberry
Atlantic White Cedar
Fringetree
Persimmon
American Beech
White Ash
Green Ash
American Holly
Red Cedar
Sweet Gum
Tulip Tree
Sweetbay Magnolia
Red Mulberry
Black Gum
Shortleaf Pine
Loblolly Pine
Virginia Pine
Sycamore
Eastern Cottonwood
Large-tooth Aspen
Wild Black Cherry
White Oak
Scarlet Oak
Southern Red Oak
Pin Oak
Willow Oak
Sassafras
Bald Cypress
American Basswood
American Elm

Acer negudo
Acer rubrum
Acer saccharinum
Amelanchier arborea
Betula lenta
Betula nigra
Carpinus caroliniana
Carya cordiformis
Carya glabra
Carya ovata
Celtis occidentalis
Chamaecyparis thyoides
Chionanthus virginicus
Diospyros virginiana
Fagus grandifolia
Fraxinus americana
Fraxinus pennsylvanica
Ilex opaca
Juniperus virginiana
Liquidambar styraciflua
Liriodendron tulipifera
Magnolia virginiana
Morus rubra
Nyssa sylvatica
Pinus echinata
Pinus taeda
Pinus virginiana
Platanus occidentalis
Populus deltoides
Populus grandidentata
Prunus serotina
Quercus alba
Quercus coccinea
Quercus falcata
Quercus palustris
Quercus phellos
Sassafras albidum
Taxodium distichum
Tilia americana
Ulmus americana

S
F
F-P
F-P
F-P
F
P-S
F-P
P-S
F-P
F-P
F
F-P
F-S
F-S
F-P
F-P
F-P
F-P
F
F
P-F
F-P
F
F-P
F
F
F-P
F
F
F-P
F-P
F-P
P-S
P-S
F-S
F-P
F
P-S
F
W-D
W-D
A-W
A-D
A
A-W
W-A
D-W
D
A
W-D
A-W
A
D-A
A
A
A
A-D
D-A
W-A
A
W-A
A
A-D
D
D-W
D
A-W
A
D-W
D
D
D
D-A
A-W
W-A
D-A
A-W
A-W
A
30-50'
50-75'
60-75'
15-25'
40-55'
40-70'
20-30'
50-70'
50-99'
70-90'
50-75'
40-50'
20'
30-50'
50-80'
60-80'
50-60'
20-40'
30-40'
60-85'
70-90'
60'
50-70'
30-60'
80-99'
50-90'
15-40'
70-99'
70-99'
50-70'
50-80'
60-99'
75'
70-90'
60-80'
100+'
30-60'
50-75'
60-80'
60-80'

Migrating birds eat seeds; male & female plants
Buds & young twigs are red: great fall color
Lacy leaves with a white bloom on the underside
Yellow-orange-red fall color; white flowers in April
Golden yellow fall color
Modest yellow fall color; seed attracts birds
Good street tree; yellow, orange, scarlet fall color
Striking yellow buds; yellow fall color; rapid growth
Golden yellow fall color; rapid growth rate
Yellow to golden-brown fall color; squirrels eat nuts
Mild yellow fall color; warty trunk interesting in winter
Green needle-like foliage with white markings
Show-stopping creamy white flowers in Apr-May
Yellow, orange to mauve fall color; butterfly larval plant
Golden brown fall color; nuts attract birds & squirrels
Yellow, maroon to purple fall color; butterfly larval plant
Grows fast; yellow fall color
To ensure fruit one male is needed to 2-3 females
Good for screening; attracts birds
Brilliant scarlet red to red-purple fall color
Large tulip-like flowers are yellow, green & orange
White, fragrant flowers(spr) become red seeds(summer)
Red to dard purple sweet & juicy edible fruits
Scarlet red fall color
Dark blue-green needles; seed eaten by birds
Dark green needles; rapid growth; seed eaten by birds
Foliage used in Christmas decorations; birds eat seeds
Leaves drop all summer; white mottled bark
Modest fall color; can be messy
Fast growing; fall color; leaves flutter in wind
Messy tree; small edible berries in sum; attracts birds
Brown, red, wine fall color; acorns eaten by wildlife
Brilliant scarlet fall color; rapid growth
Brown fall color; drought tolerant
Russett, bronze, red fall color
Beautiful shade tree; good street tree; high branching
Yellow flowers(Apr) yellow, orange, to scarlet fall color
Deciduous needles turn russett in fall
Wood used for carving; nectar makes honey; seeds
Yellow fall color; high spreading canopy
 
For more info, enter a plant name
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Sun Exposure
F = Full Sun
P = Part Sun
S = Shade
Soil Moisture
W = Wet
A = Average
D = Dry
  Shrubs            
  Common Name Scientific Name Sun Moist. Ht.
    Comments
 
  Smooth Alder
Red Chokeberry
Paw Paw
Groundsel Tree
Common Buttonbush
Sweet Pepperbush
Silky Dogwood
Flowering Dogwood
American Hazelnut
Cockspur Hawthorn
Dwarf Hawthorn
Black Huckleberry
Dangleberry
American Witch-Hazel
Inkberry
Winterberry Holly
Virginia Willow
Marsh Elder
Mountain Laurel
Fetterbush
Spicebush
Maleberry
Southern Bayberry
Norhtern Bayberry
American Plum
Beach Plum
Dwarf Azalea
Pink Azalea
Swamp Azalea
Winged Sumac
Smooth Sumac
Staghorn Sumac
Swamp Rose
Common Elderberry
Highbush Blueberry
Early Lowbush Blueber.
Squaw Huckleberry
Maple-leaf Viburnum
Southern Arrowwood
Possumhaw viburnum
Smooth Blackhaw

Alus serrulata
Aronia arbutifolia
Asimina triloba
Baccharis halimifolia
Cephalanthus occidentalis
Clethra alnifolia
Cornus amomum
Cornus florida
Corylus americana
Crataegus crus-galli
Crataegus uniflora
Gaylussacia baccata
Gaylussacia frondosa
Hamamelis virginiana
Ilex glabra
Ilex verticillata
Itea virginica
Iva frutescens
Kalmia latifolia
Leucothoe racemosa
Lindera benzoin
Lyonia ligustrina
Myrica cerifera
Myrica pensylvanica
Prunus americana
Prunus maritima
Rhododendron atlanticum
Rhodod. periclymenoides
Rhododendron viscosum
Rhus copallinum
Rhus glabra
Rhus hirta
Rosa palustris
Sambucus canadensis
Vaccinium corymbosum
Vaccinium pallidum
Vaccinium stamineum
Viburnum acerifolium
Viburnum dentatum
Viburnum nudum
viburnum prunifolium

F-S
P-S
P-S
F-P
F-P
F-P
P-S
F-S
F-S
F
F-P
P-S
P-S
F-S
P-S
F-P
F-P
F
F-P
F-P
P-S
F-P
P-S
F
F-P
F
F-P
F-P
P
F
F
F-P
F
F-S
F-P
F-P
P
F-P
F-P
P-S
F-P


W
A-W
A
A
A
W-A
A-W
D-A
A
A-D
A
D-A
A
A-D
A
A-D
W-D
A-W
D-W
A-W
W-A
W-A
D-A
D-W
W-D
A-D
A
A
A-W
D
D-A
A-D
W-A
A-W
A
A-D
A-D
A-D
D-A
W
A

15-20'
6-10'
40'
3-10'
6-12'
2-4'
6-10'
25-30'
12-15'
20-30'
12'
1-3'
3-6'
8-20'
4-8'
6-15'
3-6'
8'
5'
3-13'
8-15'
6-12'
15-20'
5-8'
12-20'
10'
3-10'
6-10'
5-8'
8-20'
9-15'
30'
4-6'
5-12'
6-12'
24"
6-8'
6'
5-9'
5-20'
12-15'

Yellow & orange fall color; fruit eaten by birds
Red berries load schrub, eaten by mammals & birds
Unique fruit resembles & tsstes like banana
White flower heads; attractive fall foliage
Golf-ball like fragrant flower clusters attract butterflies
Ivory white fragrant blooms in summer
Creamy-white flowers May-Jun; no fall color
White flowers in spring become bird-attracting berries
Edible nuts; suckering
White flowers in spring; red fruit in sum; red fall color
White 5-petaled flowers(Apr-May); dull red berries(Oct)
Edible fruit - ancestor of blueberry
Dark blue fruit is important to wildlife
Golden yellow flowers in fall; spectacular fall color
Evergreen schrub; forms suckering colonies
Small red berries on female plants persist into winter
White blooms early summer; red, orange, maroon in fall
No fall color; inconspicuous flowers; evergreen
Terminal fragrant white flower clusters; wine fall color
Racemes of delicate bell shaped flowers(Apr-Jun)
Yellow spicily fragrant blooms in early spring
White flowers in June; fall color
Leaves are fragrant when crushed & olive green in color
Semi-evergreen; transplants well
White fragrant flowers in spring; 1" red or yellow fruit
Profusion of white blooms in spring; fruit makes jam
Pinkish white fragrant flowers in mid April
Variable color, but often pink; sometimes pink
Fragrant white flowers in late spring - early summer
Brilliant red fall foliage; fruit feeds birds; butterfly host
Velvety red fruit on female plants persists into winter
Provides food & shelter for wildlife; suckering
Fragrant flowers in summer; red hips persist; fall color
Showy white flowers(Jul); edible fruit in September
Brilliant red fall foliage; fruit attracts wildlife
Small white bell-shaped flowers in late spring; fall color
White bell-shaped flowers in late spring; fall color
Pie-shaped clusters of creamy-white flowers; fall color
Flowers May-Jun; small blue-black berries in fall
Clusters of small white-flowers (May-Jul)
White flowers(spring); edible fruit attracts birds
 
For more info, enter a plant name
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Sun Exposure
F = Full Sun
P = Part Sun
S = Shade
Soil Moisture
W = Wet
A = Average
D = Dry
  Vines          
  Common Name Scientific Name Sun Moist. Ht.
    Comments
 
  Trumpet Creeper
Trumpet Honeysuckle
Virginia Creeper
Glaucous-leaf Greenbriar
Campsis radicans
Lonicera sempervirens
Parthenocissus quinquefolia
Smilax Glauca

F-P
F-P
F-P
P-F

A-D
A
A
D-A

20-40'
15-25'
30-50'
10-20'

Orange flowers attract hummingbirds; flowers in full sun
Red/yellow trumpet-shaped flowers; berries attract birds
Excellent red fall color; attracts birds
Thorny vine with small fragrant flowers; berries for birds


 
For more info, enter a plant name
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Sun Exposure
F = Full Sun
P = Part Sun
S = Shade
Soil Moisture
W = Wet
A = Average
D = Dry
  Flowering Perennials          
  Common Name Scientific Name Sun Moist. Ht.      Comments  
  Virginia anamone
Jack-in-the-Pulpit
Canada Wild Ginger
Swamp Milkweed
Butterfly Milkweed
White Wood Aster
New England Aster
Cutleaf Toothwort
Blue Cohosh
White Turtlehead
Maryland Golden Aster
Black Bugbane
Yellow Thistle
Canada Horsebalm
Blue Boneset
Wild Comfrey
Dutchman's Breeches
Joe-Pye Thoroughwort
Hollow Joe-Pye Weed
Hyssop-leaf Thoroughw.
Common Boneset
Sweet Joe-Pye Weed
Grassleaf Goldenrod
Wild Crane's Bill
Purple-he. Sneezeweed
Swamp Sunflower
Swamp Rosemallow
Blueflag Iris
Turk's Cap Lily
Cardinal Flower
Great Blue Lobelia
Whorled loosestrife
False Solomon's Seal
Indian Cucumber Root
Virginia Bluebells
Squarestem Monkey F.
Horsemint
Evening Primrose
Prickly Pear Cactus
Tall White Beardtongue
Mayapple
Greek Valerian
Solomon's Seal
Black-eyed Susan
Cutleaf Coneflower
Bloodroot
Golden Ragwort
White Goldenrod
Bluestem Goldenrod
Sweet Goldenrod
Rough-leaf Goldenrod
Seaside Goldenrod
Virginia Spiderwort
Blue Vervain
New York Ironweed
Common Yucca

Anemone virginiana
Arisaema triphyllum
Asarum canadense
Asclepias incarnata
Asclepias tuberosa
Aster divarticus
Aster novi-angliae
Cardamine concatenata
Caulophyllum thalictroides
Chelone glabra
Chrysopsis mariana
Cimifuga racemosa
Cirsium horridulum
Collinsonia canadensis
Eupatorium coelestinum
Cynoglossum virginianum
Dicentra cucullaria
Eupatorium dubium
Eupatorium fistulosum
Eupatorium hyssopifolium
Eupatorium perfoliatum
Eupatorium purpureum
Euthamia graminifolia
Geranium maculatum
Helenium flexuosum
Helianthus angustifolius
Hibiscus moscheutos
Iris versicolor
Lilium superbum
Lobelia cardinalis
Lobelia siphilitica
Lysimachia quadrifolia
Maianthemum racemosum
Medeola virginiana
Mertensia virginica
Mimulus ringens
Monarda punctata
Oenothera biennis
Opuntia humifusa
Penstemon digitalis
Podophyllum peltatum
Polemonium reptans
Polygonatum biflorum
Rudbeckia hirta
Rudbeckia laciniata
Sanguinaria canadensis
Senecio aureus
Solidago bicolor
Solidago caesia
Solidago odora
Solidago rugosa
Solidago sempervirens
Tradescantia virginiana
Verbena hastata
Vernonia noveboracensis
Yucca filamentosa

S
P-S
S
F
F-P
F-P
F-P
P
P-S
P-S
F
P-S
F
S-P
F-P
F-P
S
F
F
F-P
F-P
F-P
F-P
F-S
F-P
F
F
F-P
F-P
F-P
F-P
F
S
S
F-S
F
F
F-P
F-P
F-P
P-S
S
P-S
F-P
F-P
S
P-S
F
F-S
P
F-P
F-P
P-F
F-P
F-P
F


A
A
A
A
A
D-A
A
A-W
A
W
D
A
A-D
A
A
A
A
A-D
A
A
A-W
A
A-W
A
A
A
W
A
A
A
A
D-A
A
A
A
W
D
D-A
D-A
A
A
A
D-A
A
A
A
A
A
A-D
D
A
A
A
A-W
W
A-D



1-3'
12+"
4-6"
12-36"
24-36"
1-3'
40-60"
8-16"
1-2'
1-3'
2-3'
3-8'
36-48"
3-4'
1-3'
24-36"
5-12"
3-4'
3-10'
36-48"
2-4'
48-80"
3-5'
1-2'
2-3'
6'
4-7'
2-3'
4-6'
24-54"
12-24"
1-3'
12-18"
6"
12-24"
2-5'
1-3'
2-6'
6-18"
30-50"
12-18"
12-18"
2-3'
24-36"
9'
6-12"
6-12"
3'
1-3'
1-2'
2-5'
1-8'
18-36"
5'
4-6'
3'

White flowers in summer; dried seed heads nice cuttings
Spathe appears Mar-May; red berries late sum/fall
Evergreen groundcover, glossy heart shaped leaves
Pink to white flowers in the spring
Clusters of brilliant orange flowers attract butterflies
Clusters of white flowers late summer into fall
Bright lavender flowers with yellow centers late summer
Terminal clusters of four-petaled white or pinkish flowers
Small yellow-green flowers(spring) blue berries in cluster
White to pink 1.5" flowers summer into fall
Bright yellow clusters of loose, single 1" daisy-like flower
Long slender candle-like clusters of white flowers
Purple flower attracts bees and butterflies
Large oval fragrant leaves; small flowers late summer
Dense clusters of blue/purple flowers late summer
White flowers(spring-sum) attracts butterflies
White & yellow flowers resembling a pair of pantaloons
Mauve-pink clusters above attractive green foliage
Pinkish-purple clusters above lance-like fragrant leaves
White flowers Aug-Nov draw butterflies
Flat-top clusters of small white flowers in fall
Large pink flowers attract butterflies in droves Aug-Sept
Yellow flowers Aug-Sept
1" lavender-purple flowers in spring & summer
Purplish brown disk contracting yellow, toothed petals
Yellow flowers abound late sum & fall; cut back in June
4-6" white or pink flowers with purplish-crimson base
3-4" blue flowers with yellow & white markings
Gorgeous orange/yellow flowers;likes am sun/pm shade
Terminal clusters of bright red 1.5" flowers in fall
Elongated clusters of pale to dark blue flowers late sum
Star-like 5-petaled yellow flowers have reddish center
White blooms May-Jun; red berries late summer
Showy fall color; tastes like cucumber
Pink flowers buds open to sky blue flowers Mar-Apr
1" violet flowers in summer & fall
Fragrant pink flowers held above foliage summer/fall
Lemon scented flowers open at dusk, close by noon
Beautiful yellow flowers; edible; cactus
Long blooming pure white flowers Jun-Jul
1" solitary white bloom at the fork of 2 leaf stalks
Terminal clusters of light blue bell-shaped flowers in Apr
.5" bell-shaped white flowers hang from leaf axils
2-4" flowers with 10-20 bright yellow petals sum/fall
Yellow rays with a green center; attracts butterflies
2" white flowers with yellow centers; sap in root is red
Semi-evergreen; clusters of yellow flowers in spring
Silvery white flowers Jul-Oct
Stems are studded with clusters of tiny yellow florets
Fragrant species, leaves smell like anise; good for tea
Tiny flowers look like strings of yellow beads Aug-Oct
.3" bright yellow flowers form clusters late sum/early fall
Grass-like leaves & 3-petaled violet-blue flowers
Small blue flowers crowd onto several terminal spikes
Purple flowers attract butterflies in the summer
Waxy cream bells on 5' stalks; stiff green blades
 
For more info, enter a plant name
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Sun Exposure
F = Full Sun
P = Part Sun
S = Shade
Soil Moisture
W = Wet
A = Average
D = Dry
  Perennial Ferns          
  Common Name Scientific Name Sun Moist. Ht.      Comments  
  Maidenhair Fern
Lady Fern
Silvery Spleenwort
Spinulose Wood Fern
Crested Wood Fern
Evergreen Wood Fern
Marginal Wood Fern
Sensitive Fern
Cinnamon Fern
Interrupted Fern
Royal Fern
Christmas Fern
Bracken Fern
Adiantum pedatum
Athyrium filix-femina
Deparia acrostichoides
Dryopteris carthusiana
Dryopteris cristata
Dryopteris intermedia
Dryopteris marginalis
Onoclea sensiblilis
Osmunda cinnamomea
Osmunda claytonia
Osmunda regalis
Polystichum acrostichoides
Pteridium aquilinum

P-S
S
F-S
P-S
F-P
S
P-S
F-P
P-S
S
P
P-S
P-F

A
A-W
A
A-W
W-A
A
A-W
W
A-W
D
A-W
A
A-W

18-36"
18-24"
2-3'
2-3'
2-5'
2-3'
18-24"
12-24"
24-48"
3-4'
2-6'
12-36"
2-7'

fan-shaped green fronds held on delicate black stems
Delicate & lacy arching fronds, red stems at maturity
Needs constant moisture; straw fall color
Nearly tri-pinnate, very lacy looking
Upright blade with sparse pinnea perpendicular
Must not dry out; dark green lacy fronds
Evergreen fern grayish-green deeply cut leathery fronds
Deeply pinnate leaves; poisonous to livestock
Circular clusters of arching fronds; brown fertile fronds
Fertile leaflets interrupt the fronds; light green
Bi-pinnate blade; pinnae resemble locust tree leaves
Stiff deep green fronds are once-pinnate
Attractive branching fern; is not a round cluster

 
For more info, enter a plant name
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Sun Exposure
F = Full Sun
P = Part Sun
S = Shade
Soil Moisture
W = Wet
A = Average
D = Dry
  Grasses, Sedges & Rushes          
  Common Name Scientific Name Sun Moist. Ht.      Comments  
  Broom Sedge
Tussock Sedge
Three-way Sedge
Squarestem Spikerush
Virginia Wild Rye
Purple Love Grass
Canada Rush
Smooth Rush
Switch Panic Grass
Little Bluestem
Cottongrass Bulrush
Yellow Indian Grass
Andropogon virginicus
Carex stricta
Dulichium arundinaceum
Eleocharis quadrangulata
Elymus virginicus
Eragrostis spectabilis
Juncus canadensis
Juncus effusus
Panicum virgatum
Schizachyrium scoparium
Scirpus cyperinus
Sorghastrum nutans

F-P
F-P
F-P
F-P
P-S
F
F-P
F-P
F-P
F-P
F
F-P

D-W
A-W
W
W
D-A
A
A-W
A-W
D-W
D-A
W-A
A-D

4'
2-3'
1-2'
24"
3'
18-24"
3'
3'
4-6'
2-4'
3-5'
3-6'

Green leaves/stems turn purple & bright orange in fall
Evergreen; blue flowers dissappear quickly; likes full sun
Will thrive in up to 2" standing water; resembles bambo
4-sided stems; wetland plant
Distinguished by relatively stiff, erect spikes
Fluffy clouds of bronze-red inflorescences summer/fall
Rapid growth; green foliage & flower
Bright green cylindrical stems without nodes, no leaves
Bluish cast in summer; reddish fall color
Bright green to light blue leaves turn copper, orange
Clumping grass-like perennial; wooly seed heads in fall
Foliage varies from drooping & green to upright and blue

 
  TREES     SHRUBS     GROUND COVERS and VINES    FLOWERING PERENNIALS    FERNS  
 
1. While the plants listed above are native to and appropriate for their indicated regions, please recognize that, in some instances, human development alters the characteristics of a site such that it may be advisable to use plants from a neighboring region. For example, plantings in urban and suburban areas may receive reflected heat from streets, sidewalks and/or walls or be in media that receives less moisture than normal (e.g., next to a paved area – the pavement blocks rain from entering soil). Accordingly, using plants from a neighboring region that support higher temperatures and/or drier conditions may be more appropriate.

2. While a plant is native to a region, that does not mean that it will grow everywhere in that region. The characteristics of any site will typically vary from place to place and some plants may do better than others at various places within a site. In other words, a little experimentation might be required.

3. The above list is a starter list. Though adequate for most residential and commercial landscapes, there are many more native plants and should you want to consider them, please inquire at a listed nursery, community service organization, reference book or other resources.
 
 

CREDITS:

1. Delaware Native Plants for Landscaping and Restoration. Delaware Native Plant Society www.delawarenativeplants.org.

2. PlantNative Staff.

Find another Native Plant List!
 
 
 

 

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