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NATIVE PLANT LIST

Maryland, Virginia, and West Virginia

 
 
   
This is a "starter" list of native plants for Maryland, Virginia, and West Virginia. It is intended for residential or commercial landscapers who want to create attractive and varied native landscapes.


Find another Native Plant List!
 
 
  TREES     SHRUBS     FLOWERING PERENNIALS    FERNS and VINES    GRASSES  
  Trees              
  Common Name Scientific Name Sun Moist Ht. Region
    Comments
 
  (LARGE)
Red Maple
Sugar Maple
Yellow Birch
Black Birch
River Birch
Pignut Hickory
Shagbark Hickory
Atlantic White Cedar
Persimmon
American Beech
White Ash
Green Ash
Red Cedar (Eastern)
Sweetgum
Tulip-tree
Black Gum
Shortleaf Pine
Loblolly Pine
Virginia Pine
Sycamore
Wild Black Cherry
White Oak
Swamp White Oak
Scarlet Oak
Southern Red Oak
Pin Oak
Willow Oak
Northern Red Oak
Post Oak
Black Oak
Sassafras

(SMALL)
Canada Serviceberry
Smooth Serviceberry
Paw Paw
Redbud (Eastern)
Fringetree
Silky Dogwood
Flowering Dogwood
Sweetbay Magnolia
Smooth Sumac
Black Willow

Acer rubrum
Acer saccharum
Betula alleghaniensis
Betula lenta
Betula nigra
Carya glabra
Carya ovata
Chamaecyparis thyoides
Diospyros virginiana
Fagus grandifolia
Fraxinus americana
Fraxinus pensylvanica
Juniperus virginiana
Liquidambar styraciflua
Liriodendron tulipifera
Nyssa sylvatica
Pinus echinata
Pinus taeda
Pinus virginiana
Platanus occidentalis
Prunus serotina
Quercus alba
Quercus bicolor
Quercus coccinea
Quercus falcata
Quercus palustris
Quercus phellos
Quercus rubra
Quercus stellata
Quercus velutina
Sassafras albidum


Amelanchier canadensis
Amelanchier laevis
Asimina triloba
Cercis canadensis
Chionanthus virginicus
Cornus amomum
Cornus florida
Magnolia viginiana
Rhus glabra
Salix nigra

F
F-P
F-P
F-P
F
P-S
F-P
P-S
F-S
F-S
F-P
F-P
F-P
F-S
F
F-P
F-P
F
F
F-P
F-P
F-P
P-S
F-P
P-S
P-S
F-P
F-P
F
P-S
F-P


F
F-P
P-S
P-S
F-P
P-S
P-S
P-S
F
F-P

A-W
A
A
A
A-W
D
A
A-W
D-A
A
A
A
D-A
A-W
A
A
D
D-W
D
A-W
D
D
W
D
D-A
A-W
A-W
D-A
D
D
D-A


A-W
D-A
A
A
A
A-W
D-A
A-W
D-A
A-W

40-60'
50-75'
60-75'
40-55'
40-70'
50-60'
70-90'
40-50'
30-50'
50-80'
60-80'
50-60'
30-40'
60-95'
40-95'
40-60'
70-90'
50-90'
15-40'
70-95'
50-80'
60-90'
50-60'
75'
70-90'
60-80'
60-80'
60-75'
40-50'
50-60'
30-60'


25'
40'
40'
20-30'
12-20'
6-15'
25-30'
20-30'
9-15'
50+'

M,P,C
M,P
M
M,P
M,P,C
M,P,C
M,P,C
C
M,P,C
M,P,C
M,P,C
M,P,C
M,P,C
M,P,C
M,P,C
M,P,C
M,P,C
P,C
M,P,C
M,P,C
M,P,C
M,P,C
M,P,C
M,P,C
M,P,C
M,P,C
P,C
M,P,C
M,P,C
M,P,C
M,P,C


M,P,C
M
M,P,C
M,P,C
M,P,C
M,P,C
M,P,C
P,C
M,P,C
M,P,C


Excellent fall color, red buds and twigs late winter
Excellent fall color, beautiful large shade tree
Does best in cool soils, beautiful bark
Golden yellow fall color
Modest yellow fall color; seeds attract birds
Golden yellow fall color; rapid growth rate
Yellow to gold-brown fall color; squirrels eat nuts
Green to bluish-green needle-like foliage
Yellow/orange/mauve fall color; butterfly larval plant
Golden brown fall color; nuts attract birds & squirrels
Yellow/maroon/purple fall color; butterfly larval plant
Grows fast, tolerates salt; yellow fall color
Good for screening; attracts birds
Brilliant ylw/orng/scarlet/prpl fall color; fruit litters lawn
Attracts hummingbirds/birds/squirrels; butterfly host
Yellow/orange/red/purple fall color; fruit attracts birds
Dark blue-green needles; seeds eaten by birds
Dark green needles; rapid growth; seeds for brids
Foliage useful for Christmas decor., seeds for birds
Leaves drop all summer; white mottled bark
Messy; small, edible berries in summer; attracts birds
Brown/red/wine fall color; acorns for birds/squirrels
Yellow to red/purple fall color
Brilliant scarlet fall color; rapid growth
Brown fall color; drought tolerant
Russett/bronze/red fall color
Yellow to yellow-brown fall color; less mesy oak variety
Russett red to bright red fall color; grows rapidly
Variable fall color; non-showy to golden brown
Reddish brown fall color
Yllw flowers (April) clear yllw/orng/pink/scarlet fall color


Showy, white flowers (Mar-Jun); edible fruit (Jun-July)
Showy, white flowers (Mar-Jun); edible fruit (Jun-July)
Unique fruit resembles & tastes like banana
Rosy, pink flowers in early spring
Wispy, creamy, white fragrant flowers in May
Flat, white flower head mid-spring- not fragrant
White flowers (spring); berries attract birds (fall)
3" creamy, white lemon-scented flowers all summer
Velvety red fruit on female plants;persist into winter
Host plant for butterflies
 
For more info, enter a plant name
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Sun
F = Full Sun
P = Part Sun
S = Shade
Moisture
W = Wet
A = Average
D = Dry
Region
M = Mountain
P = Piedmont
C =Coast
  Shrubs              
  Common Name Scientific Name Sun Moist. Ht. Region
    Comments
 
  Common Alder
Red Chokeberry
Black Chokeberry
Buttonbush

Sweet Pepper-bush
Silky Dogwood
Black Huckleberry
Witch Hazel
Inkberry
Winterberry
Virginia Willow
Marsh Elder
Mountain Laurel
Spicebush
Southern Wax Murtle
Northern Bayberry
Pinxter Flower
Swamp Azalea
Fragrant Sumac
Pasture Rose
Common Elderberry
Lowbush Blueberry
Highbush Blueberry
Arrowwood Viburnum
Possum-haw Viburnum
Black-haw Viburnum
Alnus serrulata
Aronia arbutifolia
Aronia melanocarpa
Cephalanthus occidentalis
Clethra alnifolia
Cornus amomum
Gaylussacia baccata
Hamamelis virginiana
Ilex glabra
Ilex verticillata
Itea virginica
Iva fruitescens
Kalmia latifolia
Lindera benzoin
Myrica cerifera
Myrica pensylvanica
Rhodo. periclymenoides
Rhododendron viscosum
Rhus aromatica
Rosa carolina
Sambucus canadensis
Vaccinium angustifolium
Vaccinium corymbosum
Viburnum dentatum
Viburnum nudum

Viburnum prunifolium

F-S
P-S
F-P
F-P

P-S
P-S
P-S
P-S
P-S
F-P
P-S
F
P-S
S
P-S
F
P-S
F-P
F-P
F-P
F
F
F-S
F-P
P-S

F-P

W
A-W
D-W
W

A-W
A-W
D-A
D-A
D-A
A-W
W
A-W
A
A
D-A
D-W
A-W
A-W
D
D-A
A-W
D
D-W
D-A
W

A

15-20'
6-10'
3-5'
6-12'

5-8'
6-10'
1-3'
15-30'
4-8'
6-15'
3-6'
8'
5-12'
6-12'
15-20'
5-8'
4-6'
2-8'
2-6'
1-3'
5-12'
6"-2'
6-12'
5-9'
5-20'

12-15'

M,P,C
M,P,C
M,P,C
M,P,C

C
M,P,C
M,P,C
M,P,C
C
M,P,C
C
C
M,P,C
M,P,C
C
C
M,P,C
M,P,C
M,P
M,P,C
M,P,C
M
M,P,C
M,P,C
M,P,C

M,P,C

Yellow & orange fall color; fruit eaten by birds
Red berries load shrub; eaten by mamals & birds
Dependable showy orange/burgandy/purple fall color
Creamy, white somewhat fragrant flowers (Jun-Aug)

Small white fragrant flowers(Jul-Aug); yellow leaves fall
Creamy white flowers (May-Jun); no fall color
Edible fruit- ancestor of blueberries
Fragrant creamy to bright yellow flowers in fall
Evergreen shrub; forms suckering colonies
Bright-red berries into winter; attracts birds
Spectacular & long-lasting yllw/orng/crimson fall color
No fall color; inconspicuous flowers; evergreen
Evergreen foliage; pink-white showy flowers (May-Jun)
Yllw, spicily-fragrant flowers (late winter);red fruit in fall
Leaves are fragrant when crushed; olive green in color
Semi-evergreen; transplants well
Pale, pink flowers in late May
Very fragrant, sticky, white flowers in early summer
Showy orange to reddish-purple fall color
1" pink flowers (Jun-July)
Showy white flowers (July); edible fruit (Sep)
Twiggy shrub, wht flowers (May); red/bronze fall color
Excellent fall color; fruit edible for humans/wildlife
Flowers (May-June); small blue-black berries in fall
Clusters of small, white flowers (May-July)

White flowers (spring); fruit attracts birds; edible
 
For more info, enter a plant name
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Sun Exposure
F = Full Sun
P = Part Sun
S = Shade
Soil Moisture
W = Wet
A = Average
D = Dry
  Flowering Perennials            
  Common Name Scientific Name Sun Moist. Ht. Region      Comments  
  Heart-leaved Aster
Whte Wood Aster
New England Aster
New York Aster
Marsh Marigold
White Turtlehead
Black Cohosh
Dutchman's Breeches
Shooting Star
Mistflower
Common Boneset
Wild Geranium
Sharp-lobed Hepatica
Round-lobed Hepatica
Alumroot
Eastern Rosemallow
Dwarf Crested Iris
Virginia Blue Flag
Cardinal Flower
Great Blue Lobelia
Lupine
Virginia Bluebells
Monkeyflower
Arrow Alum
Moss Phlox
Mayapple
Solomon's Seal
Pickerel Weed
Bowman's Root
Black-eyed Susan
Bloodroot
Lizard's Tail
Early Saxifrage
Wild Stonecrop
Fire Pink
Roughstem Goldenrod
Seaside Goldenrod
Clumping Foamflower
White Trillium
Blue Vervain
New York Ironweed
Marsh Blue Violet
Aster cordifolius
Aster divaricatus
Aster novae-angliae
Aster novi-belgii
Caltha palustris
Chelone glabra
Cimicifuga racemosa
Dicentra cucullaria
Dodecatheon meadia
Eupatorium coelestinum
Eupatorium perfoliatum
Geranium maculatum
Hepatica acutiloba
Hepatica americana
Heuchera americana
Hibisicus moscheutos
Iris cristata
Iris virginica
Lobelia cardinalis
Lobelia siphilitica
Lupinus perennis
Mertensia virginica
Mimulus ringens
Peltandra virginica
Phlox subulata
Podophyllum peltatum
Polygonatum biflorum
Pontederia cordata
Porteranthus trifoliatus
Rudbeckia hirta
Sanguinaria canadensis
Saururus cernuus
Saxifraga virginiensis
Sedum ternatum
Silene virginica
Solidago rugosa
Solidago sempervirens
Tiarella cordifolia
Trillium grandiflorum
Verbena hastata
Vernonia noveboracensis
Viola cucullata
F-P
F-P
F-P
F-P
F-P
P-S
P-S
S
F-P
F-S
F-P
F-S
S
S
S
F
P-S
F-P
F-P
P-S
F-P
P-S
F
F-P
F
P-S
P-S
F
P-S
F-P
S
F-P
F-S
P-S
F-P
F-P
F-P
S
S
F-P
F-P
F-P

M
D-A
D-A
A
W
W
A
A
D
A
A-W
A
D-A
D-A
D
W
A
W
W
W
D
A-W
W
D
D
A
D-A
W
A
D-A
A
W
D-A
A
D-A
A
A
A
A
A-W
W
W
1-4'
1-3'
3-7'
3-4'
1-2'
1-3'
3-8'
5-12"
1-2'
1'
2-4'
1-2'
4-9"
4-6"
1-3'
4-7'
4-8"
1-2'
3-5'
1-3'
2-3'
1-2'
2-5'
1-2'
4-6"
1-1.5'
2-3'
3-6"
2-3'
2-3'
6-12"
1-3'
4-10"
4-5"
1-1.5'
2-5'
1-8'
6-12"
.5-2'
5'
4-6'
6-12"
M,P,C
M,P
M
C
M,C
M,P,C
M,P,C
M,P
M
M,P,C
M,P,C
M,P
M
M,P,C
M,P,C
M,P,C
M,P
P,C
M,P,C
M,P,C
M,P,C
M,P
M,P,C
P,C
M,P
M,P,C
M,P,C
P,C
M,P
M,P,C
M,P,C
M,P,C
M,P,C
M,P,C
M,P
M,P,C
C
M,P
M,P
M,P
M,P,C
M,P,C
Blue-purple flowers (Aug-Nov)
Clusters of white flowers late summer into fall
Bright lavender flowers with yellow centers late sum-fall
Flowers purple with yellow centers; bloom early fall
1-1.5" bright yellow flowers in spring and summer
White to pink 1-1.5" flowers summer into fall
Long slender clusters of white flowers in summer, fall
White and yellow pantaloon-like flowers in spring
1" flower with 5 lilac, pink, white petals facing backwards
Attractive lavender flowers bloom in August
Flat-top clusters of small white flowers in the fall
1" lavender-purple flowers in spring and summer
White, pink, blue, or purple solitary flowers in spring
White, pink, blue, or purple solitary flowers in spring
Grn-purple bell-shped flwrs on leaflss stalk in spring
4-6" white-pink flowers, purplish-crimson base sum, fall
Pale lavender-blue crested flowers Apr-May
Blue sepals curve down; yellow base blooms late spring
Terminal cluster of bright-red flowers 1.5" long in fall
Elongated cluster of pale drk- blue flwrs summer/fall
Spikes of lavender flowers in early summer
Nodding, trumpet-like 1" lt. blue flwrs spring/summer
1" violet flowers in summer and fall
Spathe in May to July
Trumpet-shaped red, purple, violet, pink, white flwrs
1" sol. white bloom at fork of 2 leaf stalks in spring
.5" bell-shaped green-white flwrs hang from leaf axils
Spikes of bright lavender or blue flowers summer - fall
Narrow white-pink scraggly 5-petal flwrs in early summer
2-4" flwr head with 10-20 bright yellow petals, sum-fall
2" white flowers with yellow centers
Slender raceme of small shite flowers that droops at tip
5-petaled white flowers with 10 bright yellow stamen
Flowers have 4-5 white petals with sharp points in spring
1" red flowers with 5 spreading petals, 2-pronged at tip
Tiny flowers like strings of yellow beads (Aug-Oct)
3" clusters bright yellow flwrs from clusters, sum-fall
Narrow cluster of small white flowers
2-2.5" white-pink flwr on eraect stalk with broad petals
Small flowers crowded on terminal spikes (Jun-Oct)
Purple flowers attract butterflies in summer
Violet flowers with spurred lower tip blooms spring-summer
 
For more info, enter a plant name
Find a Nursery in:
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Check Neighboring States?
Sun Exposure
F = Full Sun
P = Part Sun
S = Shade
Soil Moisture
W = Wet
A = Average
D = Dry
  Ferns and Vines            
  Common Name Scientific Name Sun Moist. Ht. Region      Comments  
  Maidenhair Fern
Sensitive Fern
Cinnamon Fern
Royal Fern
Christmas Fern

Virginia Creeper
Wisteria frutescens

Adiantum pedatum
Onoclea sensibilis
Osmunda cinnamomea
Osmunda regalis
Polystich. acrostichoides

Parthenoc. quinquefolia
Wisteria frutescens
S
F-P
F-P
P
S

F-P
F-P
M
A-W
A-W
A-W
A

A
A-W

18-36"
12-24"
24-48"
2-6'
12-36"

30-50'
30'

M,P,C
M,P,C
M,P,C
M,P,C
M,P,C

M,P,C
C

Tiny fan-shaped fronds held on delicate black stems
Deeply pinnate leaves; poisonous to livestock
Circular cluster of arching fronds; cinnamon fronds



Excellent red fall color; attracts birds; salt tolerant
Scented mauve flowers spotted with yellow

For more info, enter a plant name
Find a Nursery in:
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Check Neighboring States?
Sun Exposure
F = Full Sun
P = Part Sun
S = Shade
Soil Moisture
W = Wet
A = Average
D = Dry
  Grasses            
  Common Name Scientific Name Sun Moist. Ht. Region      Comments  
  Big Bluestem
Broomsedge
Bluejoint Reedgrass
Long Hair Sedge
Sallow Sedge
Pennsylvania Sedge
Tussock Sedge
Poverty Oatgrass
Virginia Wildrye
Canada Rush
Soft Rush
Rice Cutgrass
Coastal Panic Grass
Switch Grass
Little Bluestem

Woolgrass Bulrush
Indian Grass
American Burreed
Gama Grass
Broad-leaved Cattail

Andropogon gerardii
Andropogon verginicus
Calamagro. canadensis
Carex crinita
Carex lurida
Carex pensylvanica
Carex stricta
Danthonia spicata
Elymus virginicus
Juncus canadensis
Juncus effusus
Leersia oryzoides
Panicum amarum
Panicum virgatum
Schizachyrium
scoparium
Scirpus cyperinus
Sorghastrum nutans
Sparganium americanum
Tripsacum dactyloides
Typha latifolia

F-P
F-P
F-P
F-P
F-P
F-S
F-P
F-S
P-S
F-P
F-P
F-P
F
F-P
F-P

F-P
F-P
F-P
F-P
F

D-A
D-W
A-W
A-W
A-W
D-A
A-W
D-A
D-A
A-W
A-W
A-W
D
D-W
D-A

A-W
D-A
W
A-W
A-W

4-7'
4'
2-4'
2-5'
1-3'
1'
2-3'
30"
3'
3'
3'
5'
1-2'
4-6'
2-4'

6'
1-2'
2'
5'
6-10'

M,P
M,P,C
M
M,P,C
M,P,C
M,P,C
M,P,C
M,P,C
M,P,C
P,C
M,P,C
M,P,C
C
M,P,C
M,P,C

M,P,C
M,P,C
M,P,C
M,P,C
M,P,C

Warm-season;grn/bl-grn leaves;orange/red in fall
Grn leaves & stem turn dark red/purple/orange in fall
Cool season grass; sod-forming
Seeds are eaten by waterfowl
Green sedge; low maintenance
Greens early in spring; fine-leaved clumping perennial
Evergreen; blue flowers; best color in full sun
Short-leaved, light green, tufted perennial
Distinguished by relatively stiff, erect spikes
Rapid growth; green foliaged flower
Bright green cylindrical stems have no nodes or leaves
Saw-toothed leaf edges can readily tear the flesh
Clumping grass; grws well in sand good for beachfront
Bluish cast in summer; reddish fall color
Brt. grn-light blue leaves turn tan/copper/orange/red

Inflorescense wooly-looking when mature
Late sum. silky-golden flowering plumes above foliage
Leaf blades thick, strap-like; spherical bur-like flowers
Rich green foliage; distinctive flowers in spring
Cylindrical flower mid-late sum.; fresh/dried arrangements
 
                 
  TREES     SHRUBS     FLOWERING PERENNIALS    FERNS and VINES    GRASSES  
 

IMPORTANT CONSIDERATION:

1. While the plants listed above are native to and appropriate for their indicated regions, please recognize that, in some instances, human development alters the characteristics of a site such that it may be advisable to use plants from a neighboring region. For example, plantings in urban and suburban areas may receive reflected heat from streets, sidewalks and/or walls or be in media that receives less moisture than normal (e.g., next to a paved area – the pavement blocks rain from entering soil). Accordingly, using plants from a neighboring region that support higher temperatures and/or drier conditions may be more appropriate.

2. While a plant is native to a region, that does not mean that it will grow everywhere in that region. The characteristics of any site will typically vary from place to place and some plants may do better than others at various places within a site. In other words, a little experimentation might be required.

3. The above list is a starter list. Though adequate for most residential and commercial landscapes, there are many more native plants and should you want to consider them, please inquire at a listed nursery, community service organization, reference book or other resources.
 
 

CREDITS:

1. Virginia Department of Conservation and Recreation's (DCR), Natural Heritage Program, an agency of the Natural Resources Secretariat.
http://www.dcr.state.va.us/dnh

2. PlantNative Staff.

 
 

 

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