Native Plants

Native Plant List for New Hampshire, Maine and Vermont

This is a "starter" list of native plants for New Hampshire, Maine and Vermont. It is intended for residential or commercial landscapers who want to create attractive and varied native landscapes.

New Hampshire, Maine & Vermont Trees

Common Name Scientific Name Sun Soil Moisture Heights     Comments
Balsam Fir Abies balsamea F-P A 75' Open growth in hot dry locations, evergreen
Red Maple Acer rubrum F-P A 60' Excellent fall color; tolerates wet spring soil
Sugar Maple Acer saccharum F-P A 75' Excellent fall color, beautiful large shade tree
Mountain Maple Acer spicatum F-P A 30' Useful in naturalizing
Yellow Birch Betula alleghaniensis F-P A 100' Does best in cool soils, beatuiful bark
Paper Birch Betula papyrifera F A 70' White bark year-round, tolerates poor, dry soil
Gray Birch Betula populifolia F A 40' Does well in poor soils; good for naturalizing
American Hornbeam Carpinus caroliniana F A 30' Use for naturalizing; tolerates periodic flooding
Pagoda Dogwood Cornus alternifolia F-P A 25' Moist soil is important, white flowers in June
(Champlain) Hawthorne Crataegus submollis F A 30' Red fruits in fall attract birds
White Ash Fraxinus americana F A 80' Good fall color; tolerates alkaline soil
Green Ash Fraxinus pennsylvanica F-P A 60' Grows fast; tolerates salt, drought, alkaline soil
Tamarack Larix laricina F W-A 80' Good for moist-wet sites & well drained sites
Black Gum Nyssa sylavatica F- P A 50' Excellent yellow-orange fall leaf color
American hophornbeam Ostrya virginiana F-P A-D 40' Slow to establish after transplanting
White Spruce Picea glauca F-P A 60' Good specimen or windbreak; evergreen
Black Spruce Picea mariana F-P A 40' Tolerates wet sites; evergreen
Jack Pine Pinus banksiana F D 50' Useful for windbreaks in sandy soil; evergreen
Red Pine Pinus resinosa F D 80' Good windbreak; tolerates dry soils well
White Pine Pinus strobus F A-D 80' Handsome specimen; not tolerant of salt
Bigtooth Aspen Populus grandidentata F A-D 70' Fast growing; short lived; good yellow fall color
Quaking Aspen Populus trembuloides F A 50' Fast growing, short lived; good yellow fall color
Pin Cherry Prunus pensylvanica F A 35' Adaptable; fast growing; tolerates poor soil
Black Cherry Prunus serotina F A 60' White flowers (spring); wildlife food source
White Oak Quercus alba F A 80' Large tree; transplant when young
Red Oak Quercus rubra F A 75' Transplants readily; good fall red leaf color
Black Willow Salix nigra F W-A 35' Tolerates wet soils; twigs can cause lawn litter
American Mountainash Sorbus americana F A 30' Fruits good in wildlife landscape
White Cedar Thuja occidentalis F-P A 60' Useful hedge plant; tolerates alkaline soil
Basswood Tilia americana F-P A 80' Tolerates alkaline soil; use in urban landscape
Eastern Hemlock Tsuga canadensis F-S A 70' Does not tolerate drought or windy sites

New Hampshire, Maine & Vermont Shrubs

Common Name Scientific Name Sun Soil Moisture Heights     Comments
Downy Serviceberry Amelanchier arborea F-P A 25' Edible/wildlife landscapes; orange fall color
Shadblow Serviceberry Amelanchier canadensis F-P A 20' Edible/wildlife landscapes; yellow/gold fall color
Alleghany Serviceberry Amelanchier laevis F-P A 25' Edible/wildlife landscapes; spring leaves bronze
Bog Rosemary Andromeda polifolia F-P W 1' Evergreen leaves; requires moist acidic soil
Black Chokeberry Aronia melanocarpa F-P W-A 6' Tolerates wet or dry soils; wine-red fall color
Buttonbush Cephalanthus occidentalis F W 6' Good for wetland plantings
Sweetfern Comptonia peregrina F-P A-D 3' Aromatic foliage; good in dry and sandy soil
Gray Dogwood Cornus racemosa F-S A 15' Suckering; white fall fruits eaten by many birds
Redosier Dogwood Cornus sericea F W-A 6' Red stems attractive in winter; tolerates wet soil
American Filbert Corylus americana F-P A 15' Wildlife eats fruit; tolerates alkaline soil
Leatherwood Dirca palustris S A 4' Yellow fall color; thrives in moist, shady sites
Common Witchhazel Hamamelis virginiana F-P A 15' Avoid drought; yellow flowers/leaves in fall
Winterberry Ilex verticillata F-P W-A 10' Bright red fruits persist into midwinter
Common Juniper Juniperus communis F A-D 3' Takes drought, wind, sterile or alkaline soils
Lambkill Kalmia angustifolia F-P A 3' Adaptable to many soils; best in acidic soil
Labrador Tea Ledum groenlandicum F-P W-A 3' Transplants well; good for moist-to-wet sites
Sweetgale Myrica gale F A-D 4' Bushy plant; dark green, aromatic foliage
Northern Bayberry Myrica pensylvanica F-P A-D 6' Good for massing; useful in poor soil sites
Bush Cinquefoil Potentilla fruticosa F A-D 4' Summer-flowering shrub; tolerates alkaline soil
Beach Plum Prunus maritma F A 6' Good for edible landscape; salt-tolerant
Chokecherry Prunus virginiana F A 30' White flowers in spring; wildlife food source
Rhodora Rhododendron canadense F-P W-A 3' Magenta flowers in spring; best in acidic soil
Staghorn Sumac Rhus typhina P A-D 25' Suckering; good mass plant for dry slopes
Meadow Rose Rosa blanda F A 5' Single light pink flowers; suckering plant
Carolina Rose Rosa carolina F A 5' Pink single flowers midsummer
Virginia Rose Rosa virginiana F A 5' Good in dry & seaside landscape; good barrier
American Elder Sambucus canadensis F A 12' Edible landscapes; tolerates alkaline soil
Scarlet Elder Sambucus pubens F A 20' Flowers in July; red fruit mid-summer
Canadian Yew Taxus canadensis P-S A 6' Hardiest yew; good for shady landscape
Highbush Blueberry Vaccinum corymbosum F A 8' Edible/wildlife landscapes; best in acidic soil
Mapleleaf Viburnum Viburnum acerifolium P-S A 6' Good for mass plantings in shady sites
Hobblebush Viburnum alnifolium P-S A 8' Open shrub; good for naturalized landscape
Arrowwood Viburnum Viburnum dentatum F-P A 15' Durable; good hedge; tolerates alkaline soil
Nannyberry Viburnum lentago F-P A 15' Good for wildlife and naturalized landscapes
Highbush Cranberry V. opulus var. trilobum F-P A 12' Use for screening; good for wildlife landscapes

New Hampshire, Maine & Vermont Ground Cover and Vines

Common Name Scientific Name Sun Soil Moisture Heights     Comments
Running Serviceberry Amelanchier stolonifera F-P A 2' Stoloniferous groundcover; forms thickets
Bearberry Arctostaphylos uva-ursi F-P A-D 6" Best in poor, sandy, acidic soils; salt-tolerant
American Bittersweet Celastrus scandens F-P A -- Climbing vine; dioecious; tolerates alkaline soil
Virginbower Clematis virginiana F A -- Climbing vine; best in alkaline soil
Bunchberry Cornus canadensis P-S A 6" Groundcover; white flowers & red berries (birds)
Checkerberry Gaultheria procumbens P-S A 6" Evergreen groundcover; leaves reddish in fall
Creeping Juniper Juniperus horizontalis F A-D 1' Tolerates hot, dry, alkaline soil; evergreen
Partridgeberry Mitchella repens S A 2" Delicate plant; red fruits persist into winter
Woodbine Parthenocissus quinquefolia F-S A-D -- Hardy vine; maroon in fall; takes alkaline soil
Lowbush Blueberry Vaccinum angustifolium F A 2' Edible/wildlife landscapes; acidic soil
Cranberry Vaccinum macrocarpon F W-A 6" Edible/wildlife landscapes; acidic soil
Fox Grape Vitis labruscas F A -- Handsome foliage; good vine for arbors

New Hampshire, Maine & Vermont Flowering Perennials

Common Name Scientific Name Sun Soil Moisture Heights     Comments
Baneberry Actaea pachypoda P-S A 24" Attractive, but poisonous fruit
Columbine Aquilegia canadensis F-S A-D 12" Early spring flowers
Spikenard Aralia racemosa P-S A-D 36" Good for back of border
Jack-in-the-Pulpit Arisaema triphyllum P-S W-A 12" Flower green and brown; bright red fruit
Milkweed Asclepias syriaca F D 36" Attracts butterflies
New England Aster Aster novae-angliae F-P A-D 24" Fall flowering; deep purple
New York Aster Aster novi-belgii F-P A-D 24" Fall flowering; purple
Marsh Marigold Caltha palustris F-P W-A 12" Showy yellow flowers in early spring
Harebell Campanula rotundifolia F-P A-D 12" Delicate blue-purple flowers
Blue Cohosh Caulophyllum thalictroides P-S A-D 36" Blue fruits; back of border
Turtlehead Chelone glabra P-S W-A 24" Interesting white flowers in midsummer
Bluebead Lily Clintonia borealis P-S A 12" Yellow ball-shaped flowers, poison fruit
Trout-lily Eupatorium americanum P-S A 6" Flowers early-spring
Joe-pye Weed Eupatorium maculatum F W-A 48" Purple flowers in fall; attracts butterflies
Boneset Eupatorium perfoliatum F W-A 24" Green flowers; good for drying
Blue Flag Iris versicolor F-P W-A 24" Elegant form; blue-purple flowers
Indian Cucumber-root Medeola virginica P-S A 12" Interesting magenta floral bracts
Obedient Plant Physostegia virginiana F-S A-D 24" flowers pink; leaves dark green; cut flowers
Solomon's Seal Polygonatum pubescens P-S A 18" Arching stems w/ white flowers (spring)
Silvery Cinquefoil Potentilla anserina F D 6" Yellow flowers, silvery leaves
Bloodroot Sanguinaria canadensis P-S A 12" Showy white flowers in early spring
Foam Flower Tiarella cordifolia P A 6" Delicate white flowers in early spring
Wild-oats Uvularia sessilifolia P-S A 6" Cream, bell-shaped flowers in early spring
Sweet White Violet Viola blanda P-S A 2" Small white flowers, ground cover, self-sows
Marsh Blue Violet Viola cucullata P-S A 6" Blue flowers, spreading; self-sows
Labrador Violet Viola labradorica F-P A-D 6" Magenta flowers; reddish foliage; self-sows
Downy Yellow Violet Viola pubescens P-S A-D 6" Yellow flowers
Round-leaved Violet Viola rotundifolia P A-D 3" Yellow flowers, leaves large, round & leathery

New Hampshire, Maine & Vermont Perennial Ferns

Common Name Scientific Name Sun Soil Moisture Heights     Comments
Maidenhair Fern Adiantum pedatum P-S A 18" Delicate black stem, fronds almost circular
Lady Fern Athyrium filix-femina P-S W-A 18" Lacey Fronds; reddish in spring
Hay-scented Fern Dennstaedtia punctilobula F-P A-D 12" Fragrant lacey fronds; tolerates hot, dry sites
Spinulose Wood Fern Dryopteris carthusiana P-S A 24" Lacey fronds; reddish in spring
Marginal Wood Fern Dryopteris marginalis F-P A-D 24" Fronds blue-green; tolerates rocky sites
Ostrich Fern Mattuccia struthiopteris P-S A 36" Beautiful fronds; fiddleheads edible
Sensitive Fern Onoclea sensibilis F-P W-A 12" Easy to grow; spreads
Cinnamon Fern Osmunda cinnamomea P-S W-A 36" Attractive cinnamon color fertile frond (spring)
Interrupted Fern Osmunda claytoniana F-S W-D 36" Spreads well; luxurient spring growth
Royal Fern Osmunda regalis F-S W-A 36" Vase-shaped; sterile fronds finely dissected
Long Beech Fern Phegopteris connectilis P-S A 6" Smaller size fern, low growing, spreads well
Christmas Fern Polystichum acrostichoides P-S A 12" Leathery, evergreen fronds

Sun Exposure Soil Moisture Drought Tolerance
F = Full Sun W = Wet E = Excellent
P = Part Sun A = Average G = Good
S = Shade D = Dry M = Moderate
P = Poor